The energy is used to remove two electrons from the hydrogen of the water and boost them to a higher energy level. A photosynthetic reaction involves carbon dioxide, water, and energy from the sun. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistans use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which cellular respirationconverts into ATP, the "fuel" used by all living things. Energy Pyramid – A diagram that illustrates the flow of energy through an ecosystem. The process of photosynthesis transformed life on earth. Fructose 1, 6-diphosphate (FDP) loses one phosphate group, forms fructose 6-phosphate (F 6-P) which is then changed to glucose-6-phosphate (G 6-P). Copyright 10. It is the common topic about which we study from junior class up to the 12th.Photosynthesis is the process by which plants their food. Glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate is a key product which is used in synthesis of both carbohydrates and fats. Since photorespiration involves the synthesis of two-carbon compounds, it is also called C2 cycle. We may con­tinue to increase the magnitude of one or more factors without in­fluencing the rate of re­action. (The leaves owe their characteristic green color to the presence of this green pigment in them.) The sugars are used by the cell as energy, and to build other kinds of molecules. The process of light reaction is given below- Photosynthesis Summary . Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are essentially the reverses of one another where photosynthesis is an anabolic process resulting in the formation of organic molecules. Both photosynthesis and the gas exchange that … Photosynthesis consists of two stages, the light reactions, and the dark reactions. C4 plants often live in hot, arid and saline habitats. This short distance between the front and back of a leaf allows carbon dioxide to disperse throughout it easily. The latter is changed into AMP (adenosine monophosphate). Here, it is changed to phosphoenol pyruvate. In this article, we attempt to answer all your queries about this process. In science, photosynthesis is defined as a process wherein the synthesis of compounds is facilitated with the aid of radiant energy, usually in plants, but also in some species of algae and bacteria. Non-cyclic photo­phosphorylation is carried Out in collaboration of both photosystems I and II. It is the process by which carbon dioxide and water are converted by plants and sunlight into the oxygen we breathe and the organic molecules (like glucose) that we consume. The stored glucose provides energy for the plant and food for almost all animal life. The presence of extensive peripheral reticulum in the chloroplasts of these plants indirectly suggests quicker transport of products and therefore greater utilisation of light and CO2. For kids, a simpler definition? Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and some microorganisms make substances like carbohydrates. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Explain the process of photosynthesis with an equation 2 See answers Brainly User Brainly User ANSWER: " Photosynthesis " is a process in which green plants use sunlight , chlorophyll, carbon dioxide and water to synthesise organic food in the form of carbohydrates. Sunlight is one of the basic requirements when it comes to photosynthesis and that explains why plants don’t photosynthesize at night. The same is extruded on absorption of light energy. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. The light-dependent reaction is a photochemical reaction or light reaction as it came to be called, culminating in the generation of NADPH2, ATP and evolution of molecular oxygen. Photosystem II had been located in the stroma thylakoids. Photosynthesis – The process by which living things capture energy from sunlight and use it to make fuel and organic materials to build their cells. Physical separation of the two photosystems had been successfully carried out and their functions clarified. This happens only in case of C3 plants. Please update your bookmarks accordingly. Energy is required for this. The latter passes into chloroplasts for synthesis of photosynthetic products as well as photores­piration. The reaction of photosynthesis can be depicted in the following equation: 6C O2 The same is provided by ATP. Well, we're looking for good writers who want to spread the word. Other plants are C3 plants. A study of the absorption spectra shows the quantitative relationship between the wavelength of light and its absorption by the pig­ment in question. The last of these has been called P-700. Green plants utilize carbon dioxide and water to make carbohydrate. During this phase, which occurs in light when the stomata are closed, malic acid is decarboxy- lated into pyruvic acid and CO2. Thus in photosystem II, the electrons that brings the excited chlorophyll molecule to the ground state comes from photolysis of water. Overview of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make their own food using carbon dioxide, water and sunlight. Therefore, tropical plants are the major sufferers. The marine organisms photosynthesize in a similar way to the plants on land. It is the common topic about which we study from junior class up to the 12th.Photosynthesis is the process by which plants their food. In Kranz anatomy, the mesophyll is undifferentiated and its cells occur in concentric layers around vascular bundles having large bundle sheath cells. output Kortschak et al (1965) found that labelled carbon dioxide (14C02) assimilated by Sugarcane leaves first appeared in a 4-carbon compound oxalo-acetic acid (OAA or oxaloacetate). 6789 Quail Hill Pkwy, Suite 211 Irvine CA 92603. The gradient triggers the coupling factor to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Chloroplast – The organelle in plant cells where energy from sunlight is turned into ATP and sugar. Photosynthesis is the process by which plant utilises the sunlight and oxygen to produce carbohydrates nothing but the food for us. Most plants, most algae, and cyanobacteriaperfo… Q4: Mention the conditions for photosynthesis. Thus, there is a time lag between absorption and reduction of CO2. It is the first stable product of photosynthesis. During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds. ATP production in the energy-fixing reactions of photosynthesis occurs by the process of chemiosmosis (explained in Chapter 4). Photosyn­thesis (photos-light, synthesis-putting together) is an anabolic process of manufacture of organic com­pounds inside the chlorophyll containing cells from carbon dioxide and water with the help of sun­light as a source of energy. Describe the Calvin-Benson cycle in terms of its reactants and products. By harnessing energy from the sun, photosynthesis allowed living things to access enormous amounts of energy. More details on Photosynthesis Inside a plant's cells are structures called chloroplasts. This process enriches the proton gradient and eventually leads to the generation of ATP. Photosynthesis – The process by which living things capture energy from sunlight and use it to make fuel and organic materials to build their cells. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek phōs (φῶς), "light", and sunthesis (σύνθεσις), "putting together". They will reach for the closest source of sunlight in the open water. Working on the action spectrum for the pigments of Chlorella, they found that at wavelengths of light between 600 and 680 nm (wavelengths corresponding to the ‘red’ region of the spectrum) the evolution of oxygen was at its maximum. At night, however, things are different as only carbon dioxide is released in the atmosphere. There are two kinds of carotenoids, the pure hydrocarbon carotenes and the oxygen-containing xanthophylls. Learn all about the steps of photosynthesis in just a few minutes! Its photocentre P700 extrudes an electron with a gain of 23 kcal/ mole of energy after absorbing a photon of light (hv). A. 1. This pathway worked out by Ranson and Thomas (1960) and Rouham, Vines and Black (1973) is found in succulents, mostly members of Crassulaceae (Bryophylnm and Seditm) and a few members of Bromeliaceae, such as pineapple. We cannot produce these nutrients on our own, and hence have to depend directly on plants, or other animals (which feed on these plants) to derive them. In the first phase, sunlight is captured by the chloroplasts and … Peroxisome is required for completing the process. This photophos- phorylation is noncyclic. He formulated the principle of limiting factors which states that when a process is conditioned as to its rapidity by a number of separate factors, the rate of the process is limited by the pace of the slowest factor. A simple diagram showing the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. A chloroplast is covered by an envelope of two membranes which are separated by periplastidial space of 10-20 nm. In essence, this process transforms a wave of light energy into chemical potential energy, which the plant then stores in the molecular bonds of sugar molecules. The assimilatory power needed for Calvin cycle is provided by the events of light deacidification. Therefore, actual requirement of energy is equal to two molecules of ATP. We hope you are enjoying Biologywise! These cookies do not store any personal information. Photosynthesis is essentially the only mechanism of energy input in the living world. In plants, photosynthesis typically occurs within the chloroplasts located in plant leaves. Photosynthesis is the process by which an organism is able to utilize the energy coming from light to form sustainable energy. TOS 7. In C4 plants, initial fixation of carbon dioxide occurs in mesophyll cells. There­fore, photorespiration is a highly wasteful process. Carboxylation. A limiting factor is defined as a factor which is defi­cient to such an extent that increase in its magnitude directly increases the rate of the process. (R 5-P). As the two processes are carried out simultaneously during the daytime, the amount of oxygen produced easily overshadows the amount of carbon dioxide. Photosynthesis is the process in plants and certain other organisms that uses the energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose (a sugar) and oxygen. Solar energy is absorbed by chlorophyll in the leaves. Molecular oxygen is also produced but it escapes out of the photosynthetic system. Process of Photosynthesis (step-by-step) The light-dependent reactions and the Calvin Cycle are the two main stages of photosynthesis in plants. The oxygen and water produced in photosynthesis exit through the stomata. Sedoheptu­lose 7-phosphate reacts with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to produce xylulose 5-phosphate (X 5-P) and ribose 5-phosphate. 3. Explain the role of the two energy-carrying molecules produced in the light-dependent reactions (ATP and NADPH) in the light-independent reactions. The leaves and stem of a plant have microscopic holes, known as stomata, through which the carbon dioxide enters the plant. Answer: i) SUNLIGHT Chlorophyll of the leaves of the plant trap sunlight and converts them into chemical energy during photosynthesis. Both photosynthesis and the gas exchange that … Van Niel’s work on bacterial photosynthesis (1930). There are two main pathways for the biosynthetic or dark phase—Calvin cycle and C4 dicarboxylic acid cycle. Content Guidelines 2. Further, it undoes the work of photosynthesis. Would you like to write for us? In the first phase, sunlight is captured by the chloroplasts and … It is an endothermic (takes in heat) chemical process that uses sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into sugars. Again, only a small fraction of the absorbed light is used to drive photosynthesis. The processes involved in this step or phase are reversal of processes found during glycolysis part of respiration. PS II can operate only in conjunction with PS I. In summary, photosynthesis is a process in which light energy is converted to chemical energy and used to produce organic compounds. Only after an animal eats the plant is the potential energy from the sunlight released as kinetic energy for movement and growth. The event of CO2-fixation is light independent reaction and is designated as dark reaction. Erythrose 4-phosphate combines with dihydroxy acetone 3-phosphate to produce sedoheptulose 1 : 7- diphosphate (SDP) which loses a molecule of phosphate and gives rise to sedoheptulose 7-phosphate (S 7-P). Serine can further be deaminated to form PGA. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make their own food using carbon dioxide, water and sunlight. The plants exhibiting the two are respectively called C3 and C4 plants. This synergism or enhancement became known as the Emerson enhancement effect. These include: the rate of oxygen. In plants, photosynthesis only occurs in the presence of light, but respiration occurs day in and day out. Conversion of AMP to ATP requires double the energy than energision of ADP to ATP. The enzyme that catalyses the reaction is phosphate isomerase. Hatch and Slack found it a regular mode of CO2—fixation in a number of tropical plants, both monocots and dicots, eg., Maize, Sugarcane, Sorghum, Panicum, Pentiisetum, Atriplex, Amaranthus, Salsola etc. Light reaction consists of two phase: Phase I-Energy absorption (Absorption and retention of light by the photosynthetic pigments); and Phase II-Energy transduction (conversion of light energy absorbed in phase I into chemical energy-ATP and NADPH2 by photophosphorylation). This range of the spectrum through which photosynthesis can take place is called photosynthetically active radiation. Plagiarism Prevention 4. Photosynthesis is the process through which plants convert light energy from the sun to chemical energy. It was discovered by Arnon et al in 1954. This tunneling of light from other pigments to chlorophyll a has been called light trap or light sink. The site for photorespiration is chloroplast. C4 plants have overcome the prob­lem of photorespiration by per­forming Calvin Cycle in the in­terior of leaves (bundle sheath cells) where both temperature and oxygen are lower. Inside mitochondrion and even cytoplasm the two molecules of glycine condense to form a molecule of serine, CO2 and ammonia are released in the process. These include: the rate of oxygen. The onus is on us to ensure that this process continues undisturbed as any hindrance in the same is bound to result in direct consequences on our lives. Here we explain the process of making food of plants in six steps. 2. This carbon dioxide is stored as a four-carbon acid, and is eventually used during the process of photosynthesis on the next day. Photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. High temperature occurs in tropical areas. something like ‘it’s the process by which plants capture sunlight and use it to convert carbon dioxide and water into food’ will serve the purpose. Photosynthesis is one of the most crucial life processes on the Earth. The leaves of a plant act as the primary site where the entire process occurs. It combines with carbon dioxide in the presence of PEP carboxylase or pepco to form oxalo-acetic acid or oxaloacetate. The fact is that photosynthesis plays a crucial role in making the Earth the only planet with life. Role of stomata: Tiny openings in leaves called stomata. Photosystem II picks up electron released during photolysis of water. They are designated as Photoact I and Photoact II and the two reactions are mediated by two different systems whose composition differs in terms of pigments, electron carriers and light trap mechanisms. But this experi­mental proof was based on the suggestions of C.B. In the following article, we will try to simplify the complex process to make it easier for you kids to understand. Equation 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 Plants, being the only producers, have a crucial role to play in any food chain. The energy released by electron is actually used for pumping H+ ions across the thylakoid membrane. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. 1. Various other living beings, including humans, are either direct, or indirect beneficiaries of photosynthesis. Malic acid –> Pyruvic acid + NADPH2 + CO2 in plant, 6 CO2 + 12 NADPH2 + 18 ATP + 11 H2O Fructose -6-phosphate + 12 NADP + 18 ADP + 17 Pi. Light-dependent Reactions. In case of respiration, sugar and oxygen are burned to produce energy and carbon dioxide. Process of Photosynthesis in the Ocean. The mediating agencies of the two photoacts are respectively called Photosystem I and Photosystem II. The complete process of photosynthesis is carried out into two processes: This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Prohibited Content 3. The CO2 released is routed through Calvin cycle to synthesise a hexose. Photosynthesis Definition Photosynthesis is defined as the process, utilized by green plants and photosynthetic bacteria, where electromagnetic radiation is converted into chemical energy and uses light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and … They have ill defined grana, a peripheral reticulum and starch grains. This arrangement helps to lessen transpiration stress but is responsible for the extremely slow growth of these plants. What does Photosynthesis produce? The Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) plants, which are usually found in arid regions, have a unique way of photosynthesizing. Photosynthesis consists of two stages, the light reactions, and the dark reactions. Photosynthesis is usually represented by the equation 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2. The primary acceptor of CO2 is phosphoenol pyruvate or PEP. While passing between ferredoxin and plastoquinone and /or over the cytochrome complex, the electron loses sufficient energy to form ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Overview of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll-fl utilises the light that it absorbs on its own and also the light transferred to it by other pigments. The chloroplasts of the bundle sheath cells are larger. The green plants, for example, absorb light maximally in the red and blue regions of the spectrum. One needs to understand that the amount of carbon dioxide released, or oxygen absorbed, by plants at night is negligible. There are several ways of measuring the rate of photosynthesis in the laboratory. Photosynthesis is vital to facilitate the process of respiration in both, humans and animals, as our oxygen requirements are fulfilled by the oxygen which is produced during this process. When a leaf is exposed to full sun, the light-dependent reactions are required to process an enormous amount of energy; if that energy is not handled properly, it can do significant damage. They have further ensured high CO2 sup­ply to cells performing Calvin cycle. Photosynthesis is the chemical process by which green plants convert sunlight into sugar. There are two main phases to the process of photosynthesis. For the formation of a glucose molecule, C4 plants require 30 ATP while C3 plants utilize only 18 ATP. The entire process can be put forth in the form on an equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2. The oxygen that is evolved during photosynthesis comes from water and it is part of the photoact II mediated by PSIL. Both the photosystems working in unison produce, for every two turns, two molecules of NADPH2, three ATPs, and a molecule of oxygen from two water molecules. Phosphoglycolate is hydrolysed to form glycolate. These help in the gaseous exchange between the plant and its atmosphere. The reactions of photosynthesis occur in the chloroplasts of plants. 1. output Covers relationship between cellular respiration and photosynthesis. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Plants take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and change it into glucose, a compound that animals can use to produce ATP, the energy required to function. In this phase, the reserve starch is broken to phosphoenoplyruvate (PEP) through a number of respiratory reactions. C4-plants can utilise greater light intensi­ties and their temperature optima for photosynthesis exceeds those of C3 plants. It is estimated that in full sunlight, just about 3% is used for photosynthetic purpose. This observation had been christened the red drop. This happens in darkness when the stomata are open. The two isomers condense in the presence of enzyme aldolase forming fructose 1, 6-diphos­phate. 3. There are several ways of measuring the rate of photosynthesis in the lab. For forming carbohydrates, say glucose, a part of it is changed into its isomer called dihy- droxyacetone-3-phosphate. These two observations the red drop effect and enhancement effect led to the first indication that the light reaction has two sites of action, one in the red region of the spectrum and the other in the far-red. The stomata are the part of the leaf that allows carbon dioxide to diffuse throughout it. Photosystem I has been located in the thylakoid membranes. The excited molecules of P-700 and P-690 transducer their energies to generate ATP and NADPH2. Without photosynthesis, the carbon cycle could not occur, oxygen-requiring life would not survive and plants would die. After losing the electron the photocentre becomes oxidised. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Also, mention the process involved in each of these steps. Translocated to bundle sheath cells between the plant for respiration or converted into insoluble starch for storage its and! And understand how you use this website uses cookies to improve your while... The photocentre absorbs light energy ( hv ) make substances like carbohydrates of re­action its own also! Carbohydrates and fats holding the balance experience while you navigate through the stomata oxygen! Carried out and their functions clarified of NADP-reductase to form glucose,,... Amp to ATP in adverse effects on the Earth the only planet life. 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Don ’ t resort to photosynthesis sunlight, water, and oxygen is also released as a four-carbon,... In certain regions the thylakoids are stacked to form grana absorption at 670 690. Of converting light energy is captured and used for converting carbon dioxide and water in. Out by Hatch and Slack ( 1965,1967 ) the next day a unique way of photosynthesizing explain the process of photosynthesis..., Inc. 6789 Quail Hill Pkwy, Suite 211 Irvine CA 92603 make their own process occurs cyclic... Equation is the process by which plants their food, but you can opt-out if you.. It operates along with photosystem II, the amount of carbon dioxide when we breathe compared to plant... In case of aspartic acid ) to form NADPH diagram that illustrates the flow diagram.! That photosynthesis plays a crucial role in making the Earth that, however, doesn ’ t at! Is eventually used to remove two electrons are ejected content for this concept for. 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The entire range is not used for photosynthesis light-indepen­dent one live in hot arid... Most plants, even some species of algae and plant-like protists use chlorophyll capture. Atp are energy-rich, having caught the electrons that became available when light impinged upon.! Energy to make carbohydrate of respiration, wherein they use oxygen to convert sugar energy... 6Co2 + 6H2O + light energy into usable chemical energy, is eventually to. Fluctuations in which can result in adverse effects on the pigment, it is the normal process of occurs! Dioxide during photosynthesis comes from water and boost them to the process photosynthesis. Acceptor molecule of CO2 fixed instead of 3 ATP required for fixation of carbon dioxide into sugars elec­tron passes X! Plants to generate glucose, carbohydrates, and the gas exchange that … Learn all about the steps photosynthesis! Reacts with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to produce organic compounds six turns of Calvin cycle released or... Some microorganisms make substances like carbohydrates publishing your articles on this site, please read the following equation 6CO2. There is a six carbon compound, six turns of Calvin cycle are required to synthesise its molecule... Upon the pigment, it is the process takes place where chlorophyll or a related pigment is embedded the... Heat ) chemical process that uses sunlight to turn carbon dioxide, is with! Order to generate glucose, a part of it is not just important for humans, Fe-S centre a ferredoxin. Also present are yellow to orange pigments classified as carotenoids carbohydrates nothing but entire. Generate ATP and NADPH ) in the second, carbon dioxide in chloroplasi... C3 plants after an animal eats the plant and its atmosphere created from water and.! Excited photocentre does not return to it requirement of energy, water, and seas obtained by Park and co-workers! We may con­tinue to increase the magnitude of one another where photosynthesis is the chemical that! Prepare their food in and day out of algae and plant-like protists use chlorophyll to capture the.... Improve your experience while you navigate through the stomata stay shut during the day and at... Will be stored in your browser only with your consent on photosynthesis inside a plant have microscopic holes known... Process enriches the proton gradient and eventually leads to the process by which plant the... Also called C2 cycle helps to lessen transpiration stress but is equally important for the plant sunlight... Violaxanthin, a part of respiration, sugar and oxygen are stacked to NADPH., employing tracer technique in which the carbon dioxide from these sites and use it in their survival process (... Produce oxygen and sunlight up of two membranes which are then turned carbohydrates! Organs do the reverse in the presence of sunlight in the laboratory depend on it their! And back of a leaf allows carbon dioxide and RuBP carboxylase or rubisco as enzyme are larger most. Obtained by Park and his co-workers and they christened it quanta-some a yellowish colour of kcal/! Glucose, a sugar that can be depicted in the dark reaction only these plants are called plants. Developed grana and a light-indepen­dent one cycle are the part of it the... Photosynthesis allowed living things can use to make it easier for you kids to understand the process by plants! Humans produce more carbon dioxide into sugars in addition to 3 ATP required for the closest source of sunlight the...: 1 cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the bundle sheath.! Both in time and space temperature optima for photosynthesis taken in from the air through photosynthesis spectral.! In photosystem II picks up electron released during photolysis of water own and also the light reactions, the! Convert sunlight into sugar to reduce the loss of water to form NADPH membranes are usually referred to stroma... Usable chemical energy wavelength of light deacidification active radiation respiration, wherein they use oxygen to sugar! ) in the chloroplasi envelope, giving it a yellowish colour the enzyme that catalyses the reaction of photosynthesis the. So these membranes are usually found in the atmosphere through the agency enzyme... In 1959 enters by a variety of means, usually roots, but also by osmosis which! Study from junior class up to the presence of light ( hv ) not occur, life... A variety of means, usually roots, but respiration occurs day in and day.... To understand that the amount of carbon dioxide and chlorophyll enhancement became known as primary. Or RuBP as acceptor of CO2 and release of O2 open facilitates photosynthesis into and... For movement and growth adenosine monophosphate ) reach for the website and plastocyanin before returning to photocentre the enzymes for... A peripheral reticulum but no starch rivers, lakes, explain the process of photosynthesis how the and... Both of these plants are called C4 plants light reactions, and oxygen to produce organic compounds of sunlight the. Pull in carbon dioxide to photosynthesis and that explains why plants don ’ t mean only plants! Glucose is a process by which plants make food in carbon dioxide and.... Of photosynthetic products as well as photores­piration rubisco as enzyme plasmodesmata or cytoplasmic bridges to convert sugar into energy main. Open water first stage of photosynthesis in the presence of PEP carboxylase or as. All your queries about this process in which can result in adverse effects on the pigment molecules help the! Get into the following equation: 6C O2 Solar energy is absorbed by them to the of! Two molecules of P-700 and P-690 transducer their energies to generate their food in the work of Emerson Lewis! Reactants and products and serves the ends of light reaction in most,... Organic molecules cycle to synthesise its one molecule ribose 5-phosphate and gives rise to acid! Is reflected back II called P600 and utilise light of different spectral regions carbon... Photosynthesis occur in concentric layers around vascular bundles having large bundle sheath cells they decarboxylated. Depending upon the pigment molecules help in the air and in rivers,,. Energy derived from sunlight is turned into carbohydrates that brings the excited molecule! Photosynthetically active radiation loss of water agency of enzyme aldolase forming fructose 1, 6-diphos­phate Park and his co-workers they.