The external dome was covered with lead and the bands were covered with bronze gilt. [4] His reputation for piety was one of the deciding factors that prompted the College of Cardinals to elect him Pope upon the unexpected death of Paul II at the age of fifty-four.[5]. His bronze funerary monument, now in the basement Treasury of St. Peter's Basilica, made like a giant casket of goldsmith's work, is by Antonio Pollaiuolo. Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, was allied with the Sforzas of Milan, the Medicis of Florence along with the King of Naples, normally a hereditary ally and champion of the papacy. "Conclave of August 26 - 29, 1484", Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, The election of Pope Innocent VIII (1484), Adams, John Paul. The choice of this location for the university derived from the fact that the archbishopric of Uppsala had been one of the most important sees in Sweden proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century, as well as Uppsala being long-standing hub for regional trade. Sixtus IV. He entered the Franciscan order in 1533 and was ordained at Siena, Republic of Florence, in 1547. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by Raul Bova in the second season, and John Lynch in the third season of the TV series Medici: Masters of Florence. 124. In his territorial aggrandizement of the Papal States, his niece's son Cardinal Raffaele Riario, for whom the Palazzo della Cancelleria was constructed, was suspected of colluding in the failed Pazzi conspiracy of 1478 to assassinate both Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother Giuliano and replace them in Florence with Sixtus IV's other nephew, Girolamo Riario. In November 1476, Isabel and Fernando ordered an investigation into rights of conquest in the Canary Islands, and in the spring of 1478, they sent Juan Rejon with sixty soldiers and thirty cavalry to the Grand Canary, where the natives retreated inland. The secular fortunes of the Della Rovere family began when Sixtus invested his nephew Giovanni with the lordship of Senigallia and arranged his marriage to the daughter of Federico III da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino; from that union came a line of Della Rovere dukes of Urbino that lasted until the line expired, in 1631. Morris, Roderick Conway. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. During the reign of Pope Paul IV, Cardinal Medici was out of favor. Sixtus IV replied with an interdict and two years of war with Florence. Sixtus created an unusually large number of cardinals during his pontificate (23) who were drawn from the roster of the princely houses of Italy, France and Spain, thus ensuring that many of his policies continued after his death: Pope Sixtus is portrayed by Arthur Grosser in the short film Assassin's Creed: Lineage, a prequel to the video game Assassin's Creed II. Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, established a number of provisions. [10][11][12] However, Infessura had partisan allegiances to the Colonna and so is not considered to be always reliable or impartial. [2] Cardinal Borja led the first faction and Cardinal della Rovere, the second; these factions were roughly aligned with the Orsini and Colonna families, respectively. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, This page was last edited on 1 October 2020, at 19:27. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:17. Pietro became one of the richest men in Rome and was entrusted with Pope Sixtus' foreign policy. A History of Uppsala University: 1477-1977. [2] Because of an intense dispute between the Colonna and Orsini, the city of Rome was marked by far more civil unrest during the sede vacante than was to be expected historically. Francesco Salviati, Archbishop of Pisa and a main organizer of the plot, was hanged on the walls of the Florentine Palazzo della Signoria. Internet Archive, Ebooks and Texts. [3] That was a cornerstone of the privileges claimed for the Gallican Church and could never be shifted as long as Louis XI manoeuvred to replace King Ferdinand I of Naples with a French prince. In 1467, he was appointed Cardinal by Pope Paul II with the titular church being the Basilica of San Pietro in Vincoli. Sixtus was expected to be a reformer, but he … [16] Sixtus consented under political pressure from Ferdinand of Aragon,[16] who threatened to withhold military support from his kingdom of Sicily. All of that was done to facilitate the integration of the Vatican Hill and Borgo with the heart of Old Rome. Sixtus II is referred to by name in the Roman Canon of the Mass. [1], The immediate context of the election was the nearly unprecedented packing of the College of Cardinals by Sixtus IV, not only in terms of overall size, but also in terms of cardinal-nephews and crown cardinals. He is considered a Saint by the Catholic Church. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. As a civic patron in Rome, even the anti-papal chronicler Stefano Infessura agreed that Sixtus should be admired. According to the later published chronicle of the Italian historian Stefano Infessura, Diary of the City of Rome, Sixtus was a "lover of boys and sodomites", awarding benefices and bishoprics in return for sexual favours and nominating a number of young men as cardinals, some of whom were celebrated for their good looks. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. Sixtus V created 33 cardinals in eight consistories during his reign, which included his grandnephew Alessandro Peretti di Montalto and his future successor Ippolito Aldobrandini who would later become Pope Clement VIII. The election. Vol. 150–196. Giovanni e Paulo, bishop of Macon, Title of Ss. In 1477, Sixtus IV issued a papal bull, authorizing the creation of Uppsala University - the first university in Sweden and in the whole of Scandinavia. "Variations of Popery", Samuel Edgar D.D. Sixtus IV, pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. Sixtus IV (sĬk´stəs), 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. The two papal bulls issued by Pope Nicholas V, Dum Diversas of 1452 and Romanus Pontifex of 1455, had effectively given the Portuguese the rights to acquire slaves along the African Coast by force or trade. On 1 November 1478, Sixtus published the papal bull Exigit Sincerae Devotionis Affectus through which the Spanish Inquisition was established in the Kingdom of Castile. While Count Girolamo Riario was away besieging a Colonna stronghold, his palace was sacked and his wife fled to the Castel S. Angelo. He decreed that the people should chant with the priest during the Sanctus at the Holy Communion section of the Catholic Mass.. Pope Sixtus IV (Latin: Xystus Quartus; 21 July 1414 - 12 August 1484), originally Francesco della Rovere, was an Italian priest of the Roman Catholic Church and the 213th Pope from 1471 until his death in 1484.. Pope. He was born in Celle Ligure, a town near Savona. Sixtus IV (FRANCESCO DELLA ROVERE), POPE, b. near Abisola, July 21, 1414; d. August 12, 1484. Around the sides are bas-relief panels depicting allegorical female figures representing Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, Painting, Astronomy, Philosophy and Theology—the classical liberal arts, with the addition of painting and theology. The envoy of the Medici family summed up Sixtus' reign in the announcement to his master 'Today at 5 o'clock His Holiness Sixtus IV departed this life-may God forgive him!' He is known for beginning construction of the Sistine Chapel. Alexander VI, corrupt, wordly, and ambitious pope (1492–1503), whose neglect of the spiritual inheritance of the church contributed to the development of the Protestant Reformation. For the remainder of his pontificate, Sixtus turned to temporal issues and dynastic considerations. However, Pietro died prematurely in 1474, and his role passed to Giuliano Della Rovere. [20] The ecclesiastical penalties were directed towards those who were enslaving the recent converts.[21]. He was born in a poor family, and when he was a child, he was destined for the Franciscan order. It was that access to corpses which allowed the anatomist Vesalius, along with Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, to complete the revolutionary medical/anatomical text De humani corporis fabrica. The top of the casket is a lifelike depiction of the Pope lying in state. [6] Some fruitless attempts were made towards unification with the Greek Church. Posthumous style. 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